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中国《外商投资法》(中英文对照)
2019-03-22 10:30:54
来源:微信公众号“ 法与译” 作者:高凌云
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摘要
复旦大学法学院教授高凌云翻译。合传媒转发,供对经济法感兴趣的读者参阅。
  中华人民共和国外商投资法

  (2019年3月15日第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)

  Foreign Investment Law of People’s Republic of China

  (Adopted at the Second Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress on March 15, 2019)

  Translated by Lingyun Gao [Prof of Law, Fudan University]

  目  录

  Table of Contents

  第一章 总则

  Chapter I General Provisions

  第二章 投资促进

  Chapter II Promotion of Investment

  第三章 投资保护

  Chapter III Protection of Investment

  第四章 投资管理

  Chapter IV Administration of Investment

  第五章 法律责任

  Chapter V Legal Liability

  第六章 附则

  Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

  Chapter I General Provisions


  第一章 总则

  Article 1

  This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution for the purpose of further opening up the market, actively promoting foreign investment, protecting the lawful rights and interests of foreign investors, regulating foreign investment administration, so as to promote and form a new structure of comprehensive opening up in furtherance of healthy development of a social market economy.

  第一条

  为了进一步扩大对外开放,积极促进外商投资,保护外商投资合法权益,规范外商投资管理,推动形成全面开放新格局,促进社会主义市场经济健康发展,根据宪法,制定本法。

  Article 2

  This Law applies to foreign investment within the territory of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as “within China”).

  “Foreign investment” in this Law refers to investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by one or more natural persons, business entities, or otherwise organizations of a foreign country (hereinafter referred to as “foreign investor”) within China, with the investment activities including the following situations:

  1. a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, establishes a foreign-invested enterprise within China;

  2. a foreign investor acquires stock shares, equity shares, interests in assets, or other like rights and interests of an enterprise within China;

  3. a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, invests in a new project within China; and

  4. [foreign] investments in other forms as provided by law, administrative regulations, or by the State Council.

  “Foreign-invested enterprise” in this Law refers to an enterprise all or part of whose capital is invested by foreign investor(s) and duly registered and established within China in accordance with Chinese law.

  第二条

  在中华人民共和国境内(以下简称中国境内)的外商投资,适用本法。

  本法所称外商投资,是指外国的自然人、企业或者其他组织(以下称外国投资者)直接或者间接在中国境内进行的投资活动,包括下列情形:

  (一)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内设立外商投资企业;

  (二)外国投资者取得中国境内企业的股份、股权、财产份额或者其他类似权益;

  (三)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内投资新建项目;

  (四)法律、行政法规或者国务院规定的其他方式的投资。

  本法所称外商投资企业,是指全部或者部分由外国投资者投资,依照中国法律在中国境内经登记注册设立的企业。

  Article 3

  The opening-up policy is maintained as a basic State policy, and foreign investors are encouraged to invest within China in accordance with law.

  The State adopts a high-level investment liberalization and facilitation policy, establishes and improves a mechanism for advancing foreign investment, and creates a market environment with stability, transparency, predictability, and fair competition.

  第三条

  国家坚持对外开放的基本国策,鼓励外国投资者依法在中国境内投资。

  国家实行高水平投资自由化便利化政策,建立和完善外商投资促进机制,营造稳定、透明、可预期和公平竞争的市场环境。

  Article 4

  The State adopts an administration system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list for foreign investment.

  The pre-establishment national treatment mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to a treatment granted to foreign investors and their investment during investment entry period, which is no less favorable than that granted to domestic investors and their investment; the negative list mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to special administrative measures the State adopts on foreign investment in specific sectors. Foreign investment in sectors not on the negative list shall receive national treatment.

  A negative list shall be issued or approved for issuing by the State Council.

  Any international treaty or agreement the People’s Republic of China acceded to or entered into that provides more favorable treatment for entry of foreign investors may be implemented in accordance with the relevant rules.

  第四条

  国家对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度。

  前款所称准入前国民待遇,是指在投资准入阶段给予外国投资者及其投资不低于本国投资者及其投资的待遇;所称负面清单,是指国家规定在特定领域对外商投资实施的准入特别管理措施。国家对负面清单之外的外商投资,给予国民待遇。

  负面清单由国务院发布或者批准发布。

  中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定对外国投资者准入待遇有更优惠规定的,可以按照相关规定执行。

  Article 5

  The State protects, in accordance with law, the investments made by foreign investors within China, their income, and their other lawful rights and interests.

  第五条

  国家依法保护外国投资者在中国境内的投资、收益和其他合法权益。

  Article 6

  Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises conducting investment activities within China shall abide by Chinese law and administrative regulations, and shall not endanger China’s national security or harm social public interests.

  第六条

  在中国境内进行投资活动的外国投资者、外商投资企业,应当遵守中国法律法规,不得危害中国国家安全、损害社会公共利益。

  Article 7

  The competent departments under the State Council in charge of commerce and investment shall, according to division of their responsibilities, promote, protect, and administer foreign investment; the other departments of the State Council shall, within the scope of their respective responsibilities, be responsible for affairs relevant to promotion, protection, and administration of foreign investment.

  The relevant departments of local people’s governments above the county level shall, according to division of their responsibilities determined by law and administrative regulations and by the people’s government at the same level, promote, protect, and administer foreign investment.

  第七条

  国务院商务主管部门、投资主管部门按照职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作;国务院其他有关部门在各自职责范围内,负责外商投资促进、保护和管理的相关工作。

  县级以上地方人民政府有关部门依照法律法规和本级人民政府确定的职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作。

  Article 8

  Employees of a foreign-invested enterprise establish a trade union in accordance with law, which organizes union activities and protects the lawful rights and interests of the employees. Foreign-invested enterprises shall provide necessary conditions for their unions  to conduct activities.

  第八条

  外商投资企业职工依法建立工会组织,开展工会活动,维护职工的合法权益。外商投资企业应当为本企业工会提供必要的活动条件。

  Chapter II Promotion of Investment

  第二章 投资促进

  Article 9

  Foreign-invested enterprises equally enjoy, in accordance with law, the various State policies supporting the development of enterprises.

  第九条

  外商投资企业依法平等适用国家支持企业发展的各项政策。

  Article 10

  Before a law, regulation, or rule regarding foreign investment is made, opinions and suggestions of foreign-invested enterprises shall be obtained.

  Any regulatory or adjudicative documents relating to foreign investment shall be timely publicized in accordance with law.

  第十条

  制定与外商投资有关的法律、法规、规章,应当采取适当方式征求外商投资企业的意见和建议。

  与外商投资有关的规范性文件、裁判文书等,应当依法及时公布。

  Article 11

  The State establishes a sound system serving foreign investment which provides consultation and service for foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises regarding laws, administrative regulations, and information relating to investment projects.

  第十一条

  国家建立健全外商投资服务体系,为外国投资者和外商投资企业提供法律法规、政策措施、投资项目信息等方面的咨询和服务。

  Article 12

  The State establishes multilateral and bilateral investment cooperative institutions with other states, regions, or international organizations to strengthen international exchanges and cooperation in investment.

  第十二条

  国家与其他国家和地区、国际组织建立多边、双边投资促进合作机制,加强投资领域的国际交流与合作。

  Article 13

  The State may, as needed, establish special economic zones or implement pioneering policy measures on foreign investment in certain areas to promote foreign investment and further market opening-up.

  第十三条

  国家根据需要,设立特殊经济区域,或者在部分地区实行外商投资试验性政策措施,促进外商投资,扩大对外开放。

  Article 14

  The State will, according to the needs of developing national economy and society, encourage and guide foreign investors to invest in specific industries, sectors, or regions. Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises may enjoy preferential treatment in accordance with law, administrative regulations, or rules made by the State Council.

  第十四条

  国家根据国民经济和社会发展需要,鼓励和引导外国投资者在特定行业、领域、地区投资。外国投资者、外商投资企业可以依照法律、行政法规或者国务院的规定享受优惠待遇。

  Article 15

  The State ensures that foreign-invested enterprises equally participate in standard-making in accordance with law, strengthening information disclosure and social supervision.

  The mandatory standards made by the State equally apply to foreign-invested enterprises.

  第十五条

  国家保障外商投资企业依法平等参与标准制定工作,强化标准制定的信息公开和社会监督。

  国家制定的强制性标准平等适用于外商投资企业。

  Article 16

  The State ensures that foreign-invested enterprises participate in government procurement through fair competition. The products produced or services provided by foreign-invested enterprises within China shall be equally treated in government procurement in accordance with law.

  第十六条

  国家保障外商投资企业依法通过公平竞争参与政府采购活动。政府采购依法对外商投资企业在中国境内生产的产品、提供的服务平等对待。

  Article 17

  Foreign-invested enterprises may obtain financing through public offering of securities such as stocks or corporate debts, as well as through other methods.

  第十七条

  外商投资企业可以依法通过公开发行股票、公司债券等证券和其他方式进行融资。

  Article 18

  Local people’s governments at or above the county level may, according to the provisions of law, administrative regulations, and local legislations and within their legally delegated authorities, take policy measures to promote and facilitate foreign investment.

  第十八条

  县级以上地方人民政府可以根据法律、行政法规、地方性法规的规定,在法定权限内制定外商投资促进和便利化政策措施。

  Article 19

  The local people’s governments at different levels and the relevant departments thereof shall, in accordance with the principles of facilitation, efficiency, and transparency, simplify procedures, improve efficiency, provide better administrative services, and further improve the standard for serving foreign investment.

  The relevant departments in charge shall formulate and publicize foreign investment guides to serve for and facilitate foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises.

  第十九条

  各级人民政府及其有关部门应当按照便利、高效、透明的原则,简化办事程序,提高办事效率,优化政务服务,进一步提高外商投资服务水平。

  有关主管部门应当编制和公布外商投资指引,为外国投资者和外商投资企业提供服务和便利。

  Chapter III Protection of Investment

  第三章 投资保护

  Article 20

  Foreign investors’ investments may not be expropriated by the State.

  Under special circumstances, the State may, as required by public interests and in accordance with law, expropriate or requisition the investment of foreign investors. The expropriation or requisition shall be conducted in accordance with legally provided procedures, and fair and reasonable compensation shall be made in a prompt manner.

  第二十条

  国家对外国投资者的投资不实行征收。

  在特殊情况下,国家为了公共利益的需要,可以依照法律规定对外国投资者的投资实行征收或者征用。征收、征用应当依照法定程序进行,并及时给予公平、合理的补偿。

  Article 21

  The capital contribution made by foreign investors within China, and the profits, capital gains, proceeds out of asset disposal, intellectual property rights’ licensing fee, indemnity or compensation legally obtained, or proceeds received upon settlement by foreign investors within China, may freely remitted inward and outward in RMB yuan or a foreign currency.

  第二十一条

  外国投资者在中国境内的出资、利润、资本收益、资产处置所得、知识产权许可使用费、依法获得的补偿或者赔偿、清算所得等,可以依法以人民币或者外汇自由汇入、汇出。

  Article 22

  The State protects the intellectual property rights of foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises, protects the lawful rights and interests of intellectual property right holders and relevant right holders thereof, and strictly holds those who infringe upon other’s intellectual property rights legally accountable.

  The State encourages technological cooperation during foreign investment based on voluntariness and commercial rules. The conditions for technological cooperation are to be determined through equal consultation by the investors in compliance with the principle of fairness. Administrative agencies and their employees shall not force technological transfer through administrative measures.

  第二十二条

  国家保护外国投资者和外商投资企业的知识产权,保护知识产权权利人和相关权利人的合法权益;对知识产权侵权行为,严格依法追究法律责任。

  国家鼓励在外商投资过程中基于自愿原则和商业规则开展技术合作。技术合作的条件由投资各方遵循公平原则平等协商确定。行政机关及其工作人员不得利用行政手段强制转让技术。

  Article 23

  Administrative agencies and the employees thereof shall, in accordance with law, keep confidential the commercial secrets of foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises they obtain in performing their duties, and shall not disclose or illegally provide them to others.

  第二十三条

  行政机关及其工作人员对于履行职责过程中知悉的外国投资者、外商投资企业的商业秘密,应当依法予以保密,不得泄露或者非法向他人提供。

  Article 24

  When making regulatory documents involving foreign investment,  local people’s governments at different levels and the relevant departments thereof shall comply to provisions of law and administrative regulations; without a basis in law or administrative regulations, the lawful rights and interests of foreign-invested enterprises shall not be derogated, their obligations shall not be augmented, conditions for market entry and exit shall not be imposed, and the normal production and operation activities of foreign-invested enterprises shall not be intervened.

  第二十四条

  各级人民政府及其有关部门制定涉及外商投资的规范性文件,应当符合法律法规的规定;没有法律、行政法规依据的,不得减损外商投资企业的合法权益或者增加其义务,不得设置市场准入和退出条件,不得干预外商投资企业的正常生产经营活动。

  Article 25

  Local people’s governments at different levels and the relevant departments thereof shall honor their commitments on policies made in accordance with law to foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises, and perform the contracts entered into therewith in accordance with law.

  Where it is necessary for them to change such a policy commitment or a contract for national or social public interest purpose, it shall be done within their legally delegated authority and in accordance with legal procedure, and the damage thus suffered by foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises shall be compensated in accordance with law.

  第二十五条

  地方各级人民政府及其有关部门应当履行向外国投资者、外商投资企业依法作出的政策承诺以及依法订立的各类合同。

  因国家利益、社会公共利益需要改变政策承诺、合同约定的,应当依照法定权限和程序进行,并依法对外国投资者、外商投资企业因此受到的损失予以补偿。

  Article 26

  The State establishes a mechanism for foreign-invested enterprises to lodge complaints, in order to timely resolve the issues presented by foreign-invested enterprises or their investors, and to coordinate and improve the relevant policy measures.

  Where foreign-invested enterprises or their investors believe that an administrative act conducted by an administrative agency and its employee(s) infringes upon their lawful rights and interests, they may apply for coordination and resolution through such complaining mechanism for foreign-invested enterprises.

  Where foreign-invested enterprises or their investors believe that the administrative act conducted by an administrative agency and its employee(s) infringes upon their lawful rights and interests, they may apply for administrative review or initiate an administrative litigation in accordance with law, in addition to applying for coordination and resolution through the complaining mechanism for foreign-invested enterprises.

  第二十六条

  国家建立外商投资企业投诉工作机制,及时处理外商投资企业或者其投资者反映的问题,协调完善相关政策措施。

  外商投资企业或者其投资者认为行政机关及其工作人员的行政行为侵犯其合法权益的,可以通过外商投资企业投诉工作机制申请协调解决。

  外商投资企业或者其投资者认为行政机关及其工作人员的行政行为侵犯其合法权益的,除依照前款规定通过外商投资企业投诉工作机制申请协调解决外,还可以依法申请行政复议、提起行政诉讼。

  Article 27

  Foreign-invested enterprises may establish and voluntarily participate in chamber of commerce or an association in accordance with law. Chamber of commerce and associations organize relevant activities in accordance with law, administrative regulations, and their articles of association, and safeguard the lawful rights and interests of their members.

  第二十七条

  外商投资企业可以依法成立和自愿参加商会、协会。商会、协会依照法律法规和章程的规定开展相关活动,维护会员的合法权益。

  Chapter IV Administration of Investment

  第四章 投资管理

  Article 28

  Foreign investors shall not invest in the sectors on the negative list of foreign investment entry that foreign investment is prohibited.

  Foreign investors investing in a sector listed on the negative list of foreign investment entry as a restricted sector shall satisfy the requirements provided in the negative list.

  Foreign investment in a sector not listed on the negative list of foreign investment entry shall be administered according to the principle that domestic and foreign investments are treated alike.

  第二十八条

  外商投资准入负面清单规定禁止投资的领域,外国投资者不得投资。

  外商投资准入负面清单规定限制投资的领域,外国投资者进行投资应当符合负面清单规定的条件。

  外商投资准入负面清单以外的领域,按照内外资一致的原则实施管理。

  Article 29

  Where an investment project in a foreign investment is required by the State to obtain approval or enter into the record, the relevant rules shall be followed.

  第二十九条

  外商投资需要办理投资项目核准、备案的,按照国家有关规定执行。

  Article 30

  A foreign investor investing in an industry or sector that requires a license shall obtain the relevant license in accordance with law.

  Unless otherwise provided by law or administrative regulations, the relevant departments in charge shall review foreign investors’ application for a license in accordance with the same conditions and procedures for domestic investors.

  第三十条

  外国投资者在依法需要取得许可的行业、领域进行投资的,应当依法办理相关许可手续。

  有关主管部门应当按照与内资一致的条件和程序,审核外国投资者的许可申请,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。

  Article 31

  The form of organization, the organizational structure, and the bylaws of foreign-invested enterprises shall conform to the provisions of the laws such as Corporation Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Partnership Enterprises.

  第三十一条

  外商投资企业的组织形式、组织机构及其活动准则,适用《中华人民共和国公司法》、《中华人民共和国合伙企业法》等法律的规定。

  Article 32

  Foreign-invested enterprises shall observe the provisions of the law and administrative regulations regarding labor protection and social insurance, and handle the matters relating to taxation, accounting, and foreign exchanges, etc. according to the provisions of law, administrative regulations, and the relevant rules of the State, and accept supervision and inspection of the relevant departments as authorized by law.

  第三十二条

  外商投资企业开展生产经营活动,应当遵守法律、行政法规有关劳动保护、社会保险的规定,依照法律、行政法规和国家有关规定办理税收、会计、外汇等事宜,并接受相关主管部门依法实施的监督检查。

  Article 33

  A foreign investor that acquires an enterprise within China or participates in concentration of business operators through other ways shall accept review of such in accordance with the Anti-Monopoly Law of the People’s Republic of China.

  第三十三条

  外国投资者并购中国境内企业或者以其他方式参与经营者集中的,应当依照《中华人民共和国反垄断法》的规定接受经营者集中审查。

  Article 34

  The State establishes a mechanism for reporting foreign investment information. Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises shall, through the enterprise registration system and the enterprise credit information disclosure system, report investment information to the competent departments in charge of commerce.

  The content and coverage of foreign investment information report are determined based on the principle of actual necessity; the investment information available through the departmental information sharing system shall not be required to further report.

  第三十四条

  国家建立外商投资信息报告制度。外国投资者或者外商投资企业应当通过企业登记系统以及企业信用信息公示系统向商务主管部门报送投资信息。

  外商投资信息报告的内容和范围按照确有必要的原则确定;通过部门信息共享能够获得的投资信息,不得再行要求报送。

  Article 35

  The State establishes a security review system for foreign investment to review the foreign investments that affect or may affect national security.

  The security review decision made in accordance with law shall be final.

  第三十五条

  国家建立外商投资安全审查制度,对影响或者可能影响国家安全的外商投资进行安全审查。

  依法作出的安全审查决定为最终决定。

  Chapter V Legal Liability

  第五章 法律责任

  Article 36

  Where a foreign investor invests in a sector listed on the negative list of foreign investment entry as a prohibited sector, the relevant department in charge shall order it to stop investment activities, and dispose of shares or assets, or adopt other necessary measures within a specified period of time to restore it to the status prior to the investment was made; any illegal gains shall be forfeited.

  Where a foreign investor’s investment activity is in violation of the special administrative measures on a sector listed on the negative list of foreign investment entry as a restrictive sector, the relevant department in charge shall order it to make correction within a specified period of time and to adopt necessary measures to satisfy the requirements imposed by the special administrative measures; if correction is not made within the specified period of time, the provisions in the preceding paragraph shall be applied.

  Where a foreign investor’s investment activity is in violation of the rules provided by the negative list of foreign investment entry, the foreign investor shall assume, in addition to the consequences as provided in the preceding two paragraphs, corresponding legal liability in accordance with law.

  第三十六条

  外国投资者投资外商投资准入负面清单规定禁止投资的领域的,由有关主管部门责令停止投资活动,限期处分股份、资产或者采取其他必要措施,恢复到实施投资前的状态;有违法所得的,没收违法所得。

  外国投资者的投资活动违反外商投资准入负面清单规定的限制性准入特别管理措施的,由有关主管部门责令限期改正,采取必要措施满足准入特别管理措施的要求;逾期不改正的,依照前款规定处理。

  外国投资者的投资活动违反外商投资准入负面清单规定的,除依照前两款规定处理外,还应当依法承担相应的法律责任。

  Article 37

  Where a foreign investor or a foreign invested-enterprise has not submitted investment information according to the requirement of the foreign investment information reporting system in violation of this Law, the competent department in charge of the commerce shall order it to make correction within a specified period of time; if correction has not been made within the specified period of time, a fine no less than 100,000 yuan but no more than 500,000 yuan shall be imposed.

  第三十七条

  外国投资者、外商投资企业违反本法规定,未按照外商投资信息报告制度的要求报送投资信息的,由商务主管部门责令限期改正;逾期不改正的,处十万元以上五十万元以下的罚款。

  Article 38

  The relevant departments shall, in accordance with law, investigate and deal with the conduct of foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises in violation of law or administrative administrations, and enter them into the credit information system according to the relevant rules of the State.

  第三十八条

  对外国投资者、外商投资企业违反法律、法规的行为,由有关部门依法查处,并按照国家有关规定纳入信用信息系统。

  Article 39

  Employees of administrative agencies who misuse their authority, neglect their duty, or commit corruption, or disclose or illegally provide to others any commercial secrets obtained through performing their duties, shall be sanctioned in accordance with law; if any of the above conducts constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be imposed.

  第三十九条

  行政机关工作人员在外商投资促进、保护和管理工作中滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊的,或者泄露、非法向他人提供履行职责过程中知悉的商业秘密的,依法给予处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

  Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

  第六章 附则

  Article 40

  Where a country or region adopts measures relating to investment that discriminate against the People’s Republic of China, including prohibitions, restrictions, and other similar measures, the People’s Republic of China may adopt similar measures against such country or region based on the actual situation.

  第四十条

  任何国家或者地区在投资方面对中华人民共和国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他类似措施的,中华人民共和国可以根据实际情况对该国家或者该地区采取相应的措施。

  Article 41

  In connection with administration of foreign investors’ investments in financial industries such as the banking, securities, and insurance industries, or investments in financial markets such as securities market or foreign exchange market, any special rules of the State, if any, shall be followed.

  第四十一条

  对外国投资者在中国境内投资银行业、证券业、保险业等金融行业,或者在证券市场、外汇市场等金融市场进行投资的管理,国家另有规定的,依照其规定。

  Article 42

  This Law shall take effect since January 1, 2020. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises, and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures shall be repealed at the same time.

  The foreign-invested enterprises established under the Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises, and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on China-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures prior to the implementation of this Law may keep their original organization forms within five years since the implementation of this Law. Specific implementation rules shall be made by the State Council.

  第四十二条

  本法自2020年1月1日起施行。《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》、《中华人民共和国外资企业法》、《中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法》同时废止。

  本法施行前依照《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》、《中华人民共和国外资企业法》、《中华人民共和国中外合作经营企业法》设立的外商投资企业,在本法施行后五年内可以继续保留原企业组织形式等。具体实施办法由国务院规定。

 

  译者:高凌云,复旦大学法学院教授

  译者致谢:感谢Norm Page先生的通读与建议,感谢译者所在的复旦大学法学院国际法学科组同仁,尤其董世忠老师的鼓励与支持。还要感谢龚柏华老师和陆志安老师提出了几个重要的概念问题,既与翻译相关,更与法条的理解与将来的纠纷解决相关,虽然有些超出翻译范畴,但是对于国际法专业的学者而言非常重要。

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